Cassava farming in Nigeria has been going on for a long period of time because cassava and it processes, like garri (mostly referred to as Eba), cassava flour, Fufu, Starch, wheat flour, animal feed, commercial caramel, and many more. It has been a major types of food that are highly consumed in Nigeria. So therefore, a lot of farmers are involve in cassava farming in Nigeria and no matter the amount of farmers in this business; there is still enough room for upcoming farmers because Nigeria as a large country has a lot of population that needs a large consummation of food. Since cassava is really popular in Nigeria, sell your cassava won’t be a problem.
In this piece of writing, I will be writing a step by step guide on a way to start up a commercial cassava farming business in Nigeria. This guide will aid in an effective cultivation and harvesting of your cassava farm in Nigeria, so no matter what you have in mind to do with the cassavas like fufu flour, cassava flour, garri, animal feed etc they are still the same.
Steps on how to start up a cassava farming business in Nigeria
- Choose a great site for planting your cassava; the step one you need to take before planting your cassava is to pick out a great land. Below are the things you should look out for in the land of your choice;
- You should look for an area this is endowed with exact soil texture because the great soil for developing cassava is deep loamy soil. Loamy soils are the satisfactory type of soil because they’re wealthy in vitamins, low in gravel, are easy to plant on or plow and can maintain water properly.
- It’s also really helpful to recognize approximately realize the history of the site, this is to recognize what became planted formerly inside the land or if the land is a virgin land. Additionally while searching out a land, you might be searching out a place with thick flora cover.
- The area you intend to choose your land should be easily accessed. It should be near to market for easy transportation and there should be sources of water, if not, make a provision for that.
- Pick out an area with flat or slightly sloping land. Never you make a mistake of picking out steep slopes, valleys and gloominess areas due to the fact that they may be with difficult weather-beaten, get waterlogged speedy and do now not allow cassava roots to expand properly.
In a case where you did not find a fertile land; or where you find that has already been used several times. Take these improving steps below to improve the nutrients inside the soil.
- Add organic or manure or inorganic fertilizers inclusive of npk in your farm.
- Plant cassava in affiliation with different crops inclusive of maize, rice, veggies and legumes, like cowpea and groundnuts. They may be particularly good intercrop because these vegetation make and launch vitamins into the soil.
- Practices mulching; (mulch cassava seedbeds) this includes overlaying the soil floor with plant substances.
- Deciding on the pleasant cassava variety to plant: to benefit more in your commercial cassava farming business in Nigeria; you ought to make a cautious selection of your cassava variety to keep away from loss. Traits of the pleasant cassava varieties are the ones which are commonly favored by way of purchasers; they develop rapid, give true yields, shop nicely within the soil and are tolerant and proof against foremost pests, and illnesses. What you ought to look at for whilst choosing your cassava varieties are;
- Look for varieties with high dry depend and suitable food high-quality: that is due to the fact the dry remember is especially starch and a little bit of fiber. The proportion of dry be counted in the roots determines the amount and quality of the goods acquired after the roots are processed.
- It is also recommended that you need to seek for a cassava sorts that bulks (that is the swelling of the garage or storage roots as they are filled with stored meals early): the cassava sorts that bulk early are higher and are able to make up for losses in garage root yield which might be an impact of weed opposition, leaf-feeding pests, and sickness.
- Look for varieties which might be tolerant to weeds, pests, and diseases: when seeking out best cassava types, you must pick types that are tolerant and immune to diseases, infections, pests, and weeds. That is due to the fact adaptable types do subdivision early, low, and often. Such varieties are able to extend quite a few branches and leave swiftly to coloration the ground and prevent weeds from growing vigorously and turn out to be a hassle.
- Pick out cassavas that are safe to eat; you ought to look out for the cassava varieties that are fit for human consumption; these are the sorts which their cassava garage or storage roots can be cooked without processing. The non-safe to eat ones are referred to as bitter cassava at the same time as the safe to eat ones are called sweet cassava.
- And ultimately seek for cassava varieties which have a ground garage or storage capacity without getting spoilt, broken or decayed until the harvesting time.
Take into account that when you plant the exceptional sorts of cassava, your manufacturing will certainly be excessive and also there will be maximum earnings.
Now you’ve got perfect cassava sorts, the following step will be to get your cassava stem cuttings.
- Choosing healthy cassava stem cuttings: while you plant wholesome stem cuttings; you can to an incredible volume lessen and manage the unfold and damage as a result of cassavas pests and sicknesses. Those objects may be easily purchased on the town and villages markets. Make sure you make a terrific marketplace research and make sure and be certain you look out for stem cuttings with pest, infections and disease. You should be searching out for a wholesome and healthy cassava stem cuttings. You should know that the cassava stem cuttings which are taken from the top inexperienced quantities of stems or excessive top and backside of saved stems are not becoming or have good values and are flawed. When planted, they will dehydrate fast, produce dangerous sprouts, and can be easily and quickly damaged by pests and diseases.
How to effectively prepare your cassava stem before planting
- For cassava stems which are barely inflamed with stem-borne pests; deal with it by means of dipping them in heated water or into dilute pesticide answer for five– 10 minutes.
- To put together your cassava stem slicing for planting; cut every stem slicing to a duration of as a minimum 20–25 cm. The usage of stem cuttings with about five–8 nodes
- Encouraged practices for planting your cassava for high manufacturing;
- the land used inside the cultivation of your cassava must be tilled to loosen up the soil, facilitate soil drainage, and promote more healthy storage root development and to make it easy for roots to broaden.
- when cutting up cassava stems you should take care of cuttings carefully at some stage in transportation to save it from bruises and harm to the nodes. Your cassava stems which you may use for planting have to be a cutting of as a minimum between 20–25 cm lengthy and has about five–8 nodes.
- It’s far important to plant your cassava properly. And to get the great sprouting and growth from cassava stem cuttings, its miles encouraged that cassava stems cuttings may be planted vertically, at an angle, or horizontally. The distinct among planting your cassava stem cuttings vertically and horizontally is that once planted vertically; the garage roots develops deeper inside the soil, greater carefully together, and are greater tough to harvest with the aid of pulling. You should also be quite aware that vertical planting does really good in sandy soils.
While when planted horizontally; the storage roots develop greater intently to the surface and are possibly to be uncovered and attacked by means of neither birds nor rodents.
Know when to weed your farm while your cassava has begun germinating to save you from weeds that are preventing your plant from growing properly.
- You ought to project to plant your cassava early which is recommended at the start of the rainy season. This ensures wholesome sprouting and suitable crop established order which helps the plant to withstand harm by means of dry season pests and diseases.
If you intend to bear in late planting; at the stop of the moist season be sure that you are exposing the crops to harsh damage through pests and sicknesses because the dry season emerges with this. So, therefore, after 9–18 month of planting you can subsequently harvest your cassava and ready to convert it into any process of your choice or sell it market women or to companies who are in need of it.
- Some commonplace pest and diseases that would affect your cassava
Before we can discuss on how to produce cassava processes or how to sell them after our harvested cassava, permits me speak about the possible pests and the diseases which can have an effect on our cassava. There are some pests and diseases which can have an effect on your cassava and prevent them from advancing whilst you nurture your cassavas. This can be;
- The spiraling whitefly; additionally called aleurodicus dispersus. These diseases ruin the cassava through sucking sap from the leaves. Maximum instances, the colonies of the insect arise at the undersurfaces of the cassava leaves and are protected with white waxy secretions associated with the ones of the cassava mealy malicious program.
- Cassava bud necrosis; that is as a result of a fungus that grows at the outside of the cassava stems covering the auxiliary buds of stem cuttings.
- The cassava mealy computer virus; this cassava mealy worm harm signs include shortened internodes lengths, compression of terminal leaves together into “bunchy tops” , distortion of stem quantities, defoliation, and “candlestick” look of shoot tip. Those takes area on the cassava leaves, shoot tips, petioles, and stems. The mealy insects are included with white waxy secretions.
- Cassava anthracnose; this ailment is caused by a fungus which takes place on the floor of cassava stems.
- The cassava inexperienced mite; occurs at the undersurfaces of young leaves, green stems, and auxiliary buds of cassava. Those cassava green mite damage symptoms consist of yellow chlorotic leaf spots on the upper leaf surfaces, narrowed and smaller leaves, a candlestick appearance of the shoot tip, and stunted cassava flowers.
Have discussed the possible disease that could cost you your cassava; lets quickly discuss on the issue of laborers. that is, those who will assist in working in your farm.
- Laborers; the truth is that this all depends on the largeness of your farm land. But if the land is not large enough apart from tilling, grooming the land and making of beds or heaps which might be a lot of hard work, planting the cassava stem will not be must tedious. Though if you have enough capital and you feel you cannot do this alone, you can employ like 2-3 people to assist you on this. Even most farmers don’t do the work, instead their pay some expert who have had years experience in this to do the clearing, tilling, grooming, planting and harvesting the cassava. All the need to do as the owner is to provide adequate supervision and management to ensure things are done the right way.
- Marketing your cassava; having followed the right steps in planting and harvesting your cassava, now it is time to sell them to the right customers. In other not to store the cassava for too long which may causes the loss of its nutritional values as time fades. It is recommended that you find buys, prior to the harvesting period so as to provide your customers with fresh cassava. Find buyer in fufu flour processing industries, garri processing industries, starch processing industries etc. Know that this is another good way to profit in your cassava farming business in Nigeria.