In this post, I’m going to be discussing with you about snail farming in Nigeria.
Not just that, I’ll tell you how you can visit our associate’s snail farm to learn or the farm.
You can even invite our experienced snail farmers to come and work with you on your snail business.
I’ll soon give you our phone number.
Keep on reading…
Snail farming business can be quite a profitable business to start in Nigeria, if well managed.
Many of us may thing that we can only set up this because only during the raining season but that’s wrong.
In fact, I will be glad to inform you that setting up a snail farming business also known as (heliculture) for specifically for human consumption or use is as quite easy as you may think.
The most effective full-size thing the rearing of snail in Nigeria requires is your attention, care and right management.
The discovery of the achatina achatina, which is also referred to as giant Ghana snail or massive tiger land snail, could be very excessive prolific specie of snail which has the capacity to lay up to a hundred eggs or extra in the course of duplicate.
The by using-products in the snail business
Snails are very slow in motion and due to this attribute it has historically been an image of laziness.
Snails are typically found in the forest or bush regions and are very lively at night time.
However though, this sluggish little creatures has excessive advantage that a number of us who commonly consumes snails has no idea that it has; from the usage of it in producing different merchandise to its healthful benefits.
Some of the byproducts of snail
In case you sincerely and geared up to enter into snail farming in Nigeria you ought to be fully aware about the snail’s vitamins, it’s by way of-merchandise or usefulness.
That is advocated so that after advertising and marketing your snail, your customers might be prompted to buy your product if you tell them about things they don’t recognize about snail.
Snail shell; that is the outer and tougher part of the snail which the snail uses as protection from their predator or from risk. On may occasion, snail shell may be used for traditional remedy, decoration or beads, decorations, cowries or for local tools.
Snail eggs or snail caviar; those are the reproduced part of the snail (snail eggs). Most people devour snail eggs or snail caviar; its miles from time to time to been put into soups or been prepared for the sole purpose of consumption, however for business purpose, it’s far recommended to keep your snail eggs for reproduction.
Snail distribution and habitat
Although native to Africa, from Mozambique to Kenya and Somalia in addition to the nearby islands, this species has been introduced to many parts of the world over time and today can be found naturally in African countries such as Ghana, Ivory Coast, and Morocco.
However, snails lives now in Hawaii, Australia, islands of the Caribbean, islands, and regions of Asia, China, Bangladesh, Japan, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Malaysia, Philippines, New Zealand, Samoa, Papua New Guinea, Fiji, and Vanuatu. In conclusion, the Giant African snail now dwells on all continents except Antarctica.
This snail thrives usually where the climate is humid.
In Africa, it lives along the edges of forests but can live on the banks of rivers and streams, shrublands, agricultural areas, plantations, gardens, wetlands and in various urban sites. It is capable of living in temperate climates too.
The Giant African Snails have been introduced in recent years to several locations and seem to have adapted extremely well.
These areas include among others, the Caribbean and some Pacific islands. They often end up in unwanted places due to people transporting them, either as pet trade or inadvertently.
It is illegal to have one of them as a pet in the United States because they are one of the most invasive species in the world and they have produced extensive damage to crops in states like Florida, Georgia or Idaho.
Although some people may think it is no big deal, they can deposit a lot of eggs, up to 200 every time they deliver a batch, and this can happen in a short span of time.
Then, soon can appear many munching around and damaging essential crops for humans. Some people turn them loose to get rid of them, and that is where the real trouble starts.
Control of giant African snail in horticultural crops
The giant African snail is the biggest land snail among snail species having a protective shell and measuring about 19 cm in length.
This is the best snail for snail farming in Nigeria.
Giant African snail is very active during rainy seasons, nocturnal in nature and damages crops like papaya, brinjal, beans, okra, cole crops, areca nut, rubber buds, coffee seedlings, orchids, etc.
The snail eats away leaves, stems, fruits and flowers of host plants causing severe damage to young saplings especially in nurseries.
Snail destroys leafy vegetables
It also contaminates leafy vegetables with its excrement.
It frequently climbs on papaya and banana plants and clings on the leaf surface thus interfering with cultural operations and affecting the aesthetic value of kitchen gardens and roof gardens too.
It is a hermaphrodite and lays 50-200 yellow coloured eggs on soil surface.
Hatching in snail farming
Hatching takes place in about a week’s period and the young ones grow up to a year and reach sexual maturity.
The life span of this snail is 3-5 years. Snails hatching towards the end of rainy season take a long time to mature as they undergo hibernation and aestivation.
—Locate hiding places and destroy hiding snails.
— Hand collection and destruction will be effective during the early phase of infestation.
— Cut pieces of papaya stems may be placed for attracting and trapping the snails.
— Use wet gunny bags and papaya leaves as bait to collect and destroy them.
— Marigold can be raised as trap crop around vegetable fields.
— Lime or bleaching powder may be sprinkled in the infested area.
— Common salt may be spread on the snail infested area.
Predatory snails, hermit crabs and millipedes are found to feed on this snail and check the increasing population.
— Spread the bait mixture of rice bran and metaldehyde (5per cent) to cover the paths of snails or sprinkle 5 per cent metaldehyde pellets around the infested plants.
— Spray one per cent copper sulphate, 0.5 per cent carbaryl or fenitrothion and broadcasting of 1.3 per cent lindane dust at 20 kg/ha.
Snail slime; this is the type of mucus found outside the body of a snail. Its physical secretion that’s produced by snails, gastropod mollusks. It is jelly in nature.
Aside from the part of snail which is been fed on as meals, another critical part of the snail is the snail slime. Snail slime carries 91-ninety eight% water.
The slime is filtered more than one times to boom its awareness and ensure its purity. Snail slime might be used for numerous functions together with; for traditional medicinal drug; long in the past, snail slime become traditionally used medicinally.
It can also be use as a remedy of burns; in Cameroon, snail slime has also been utilized by the bamiléké human beings of Cameroon to treat burns.
For serums, facial mask, moisturizers and fading lotions-; snail secretion filtrate is extensively used in Korean for splendor products. And these secretions have a neutral look, scent and texture.
Snail mucin can be used to deal with dry skin, wrinkles and stretch marks, pimples and rosaceous, age spots, burns, scars, razor bumps and even flat warts.
It is able to additionally be used for anti-growing old properties that it aids to kindle the improvement of collagen and elastin. It protects and soothes the pores and skin, repair damaged tissues and restores hydration.
Having mentioned the by way of-merchandise and the usefulness of snails, shall we can now speedily study the fitness advantages of snail farming.
Snail farming in Nigeria and benefits of snail
The following facts are important for you to know as you’re planning to go into the snail farming business in Nigeria;
Snails contains excessive tiers of magnesium; which is wanted for more than 325 enzymatic reactions, together with been concerned within the synthesis of fats, proteins and nucleic acids, neural hobby, muscle contraction and rest, cardiac activity and bone metabolism.
Snails has omega-3 fatty acids which may be very useful for stopping diseases associated with the coronary heart. Due to the fact omega 3 can make arterial organ becomes extra elastic than that; omega three can reduce the threat of excessive blood strain.
Omega-3 is very good in advancing our brain fitness as it impacts the increase of cellular membranes in the neurological system in the mind.
In addition, omega three can improve reminiscence so it’s far suitable for individuals who regularly forgetful. Lastly, youngsters who frequently consume omega 3 it helps well to assist the bodily and mental development of children.
High in Selenium; snail is high in selenium which can be important minerals and nutrients that fights sicknesses which includes most cancers and heart disease.
It is also powerful antioxidants that assist to prevent the growing old and hardening of tissues through oxidation.
Snail farming in Nigeria & types of Snail
- Archatina Achatina; The shells of these snails often grow to a length of 18 centimetres (7.1 in) with a diameter of 9 centimetres (3.5 in). Certain examples have been surveyed in the wild at 30×15 cm, making them the largest extant land snail species known.
- Archatina Marginata; common name the giant West African snail or banana rasp snail, is a species of air-breathing tropical land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Achatinidae. They can grow up to 20 cm long, and live up to 10 years.
- Achatina Fulica; Giant African snail description. Classed as one of the world’s most invasive species, the giant African snail (Achatina fulica) has been introduced around the world from its native home in eastern Africa
Predators in Snail Farming
When we talk about predators the major predators of snail farming are field mice, rats and shrews, frogs and toads, thrushes, crows and domesticated birds such as ducks and turkeys, lizards and snakes, drilid and carabid beetles, and millipedes and centipedes. The frogs tend to take only the young snails, while the reptiles eat both eggs and snails of all ages.
If your farm is located in an area with high bird predation, it is necessary to use nets to cover your snail pens (snailery).
You should make sure you are removing leftover food daily from your snail pens because some predators, particularly rats and field mice, are attracted by the leftover foods. These predators can decimate a farm in a few days.
Diseases in Snail Farming
The common diseases affecting snails either in their wild or in their cultured environments includes:
Fungal diseases mainly Fusarium Spp affects indigenous snail species native to West African region.
These diseases is commonly referred to as rosy eggs disease and the affect eggs turns reddish brown and die off (Akinnusi, 2014).
Parasites such as Alluaudihella Flavicornis are diseases vectors to snails both in their wild and under domestication.
Bacterial diseases caused by Pseudomonas Spp especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes intestinal infections in snails. This disease affects snail’s normal growth and development processes.
Deficiency diseases, it occurs mostly in domesticated snails with poor feeding, as a result of lack of minerals nutrients especially calcium and phosphors. The affected snail’s shell turns white as a result of deficiency of calcium in their feeds over a longer period of time (Akinnusi, 2014).
Cannibalism: This mostly occurs in domesticated snails housed in pens.
Older snails can eat, break the shells or fed on hatchlings as a source of nutrients especially calcium and water to avoid dehydration and for their survival. This occurs where snails are overcrowded and there is increased competition for food and space (Ikechukwu, 2012).
According to Okafor, (2001) and Akinnusi (2014), they stated that predators of snails inflict havoc on the snails by either breaking their shells, biting or sting the snails or eat them as food both their eggs and juvenile snails e.g. frogs and reptiles (Akinnusi, 2014). Snail predators adversely affect the population of the native Giant African Land Snail species of West African origin and its biodiversity.
Generally maintaining of high hygienic standards in snail farms will reduce the incidence of diseases and spread of diseases in the snail farms.
According to Walker et al., (1999), snails ingest micro-organisms e.g. bacteria from the soil and their environment, poor hygiene may predispose the snails to diseases and pathogens, which will affect their growth and reproduction.
Snail Farming in Nigeria; Common Signs of Diseases.
Snails are hardy and not easily predisposed to diseases except when management procedures are wrong.
The signs of diseases are
3) Dryness of the fleshy part.
4) Nodules on the surface.
The predisposing factors are High temperature in the snail pen as temperature higher than 35degrees is detrimental to growth and health.
- b) Overstocking of snails, and stocking different ages together
- c) Excessive exposure of snails to sunlight in snail pen.
- d) Dryness of the snail pen.
- e) Feeding moldy feed.
- f) Feeding contaminated feed, and feed of low quality.
- g) Indiscriminate use of chemicals, detergents and insecticides around and within snail pen.
- h) Giving dirty water, or contaminated water.
Snails will grow properly when provided with proper environmental and nutritional conditions.
The following factors affect growth of snails: these are 1) Stress: sudden noise, vibration, excessive light and excessive touching of snails are stressors that prevent normal growth.
2) Overstocking: keeping too many snails per floor space, results in cannibalism, reduced growth and expected turn over.
3) Feeding: snails can thrive on fruits, vegetables and compounded ration, but to get the desired growth the snails need to be placed on supplements to boost growth.
4) Temperature: the higher the temperature the lower the growth. A temperature above 35 degrees will reduce growth rate of snails.
5) Moisture content: the snail pen must be moist to assist growth and reproduction, as the lower the moisture content the slower the growth rate.
All these factors are still centered on bio security protocols and if not ensured the snails will not grow at all and many will be riddled with disease and many more will die.
How to set up a Snail farming business in Nigeria- the step by step guide
1) Be decided and dedicated; it’s far one issue to consider a marketing strategy, it’s also other aspect to be decided, set it up and nurture it till it grows.
For the installation, a snail farming business in Nigeria, you have to be absolutely decided, dedicated and ensure that it is what you need to do. No enterprise is easy, not even snail farming in Nigeria. Take into account when you are determined, you loss procrastination.
2) Write a business plan on your snail farming in Nigeria; in setting up a snail farming business in Nigeria, you must setup an ideal marketing strategy for it.
A great business is one that has a marketing strategy that’s why I always use to emphasize on this when letting down a guide .a commercial enterprise that has a business plan is one which has the high capability of succeeding properly.
it’s so because a marketing strategy or business plan involves the amount of capital you plan to start with, your expected gain, the quantity of cash you wish to spend in shopping of equipment or constructing your snail housing centers, the range of snail you’re starting with, and many others, plus your advertising strategies.
While these kinds of details are documented, it’ll provide you with a perception of the direction your business is heading to; this is in case you are gaining or losing in your snail farm business; this also applies to different business.
3) Decide your cost or capital; you ought to determine the dimensions and the amount of cash you plan to start your snail farming business with. Do you need to start the snail farming small or do you need to begin big?
Those are the various questions you need to have an answer to before you begin. A few people begin with a huge capital, while different start with little capital then as time is going on; they installed greater snails because the earnings do grows.
This all depends on the dimensions of your pocket, take into account; the only good element about snail farming business is that you may start it with low capital.
4) Choosing a fertile land and type of soil; when selecting a land for beginning your snail farming commercial business in Nigeria, pick lands which are simple with good enough texture and the soil need to not to be waterlogged.
It should be balanced and it must now not be too dry, and also it ought to not be acidic. If viable, the most applicable and advocated sort of soil for snail farming is sandy-loamy or loamy soil with low water holding capability.
The purpose why you want an excellent loamy soil for rearing your snail is due to the fact snails derive calcium that’s used for forming its shell from the soil and it additionally gets its water from the soil and lays its eggs on soil. So therefore, snails can’t be reared on concrete floors.
5) Snail farming in Nigeria; housing and the usage of in depth system; in case you intend to assemble and rear your snail in a snail pen, tank or drum and not on an open vicinity or farm, then you definitely are nevertheless on point.
This method is noticeably recommended, due to the fact you will keep a near watch for your snail and in addition they won’t have the ability to crawl away in one-of-a-kind path. Whilst constructing this pen, tank or drum, or maybe in trampolines, it is able to be excessive or low fenced.
For the ones of you who intend to construct an excessive fenced pen, the partitions must be a dwarf wall with bricks of about 1.5m high built all around it and it ought to have twine gauze on the top.
You ought to try to prevent ants or bugs (who’re snail’s predators) with the aid of digging a few trenches across the underneath or foundation of the fence and pour some engine oil on it; this could assist in saving you the collection of ants or bugs.
This same application goes to those constructing low fenced pens. In case you intend to construct a concrete floored snail pen; you need to cowl the ground of the pens with soil, (loamy soil) to provide the snails a better condition.
It’s far higher and pretty encouraged that when building your snail pen (residence of your snail); you should construct a pen that has a bare soil on the floor, and no need to cement it. Positioning sparkling leaves or damps the soil to make the snail feeling at home.
(6) Selecting the proper breed and stocking for your snail farm. After building your snail pen, now it’s time to stock your snail pens with snails.
When deciding on or getting your snail, you ought to pick out snails which are sparkling; they must additionally have tough shells without damage, patches or nodes at the surface. Additionally search for the ones which might be sexually matured which weigh closely.
There many species of nails in Nigeria. And they are;
- Sulawesi snail
- Pond snail
- Apple snail
- Zebra nerite snail
- Tracked nerite snail
- Horned nitrite snail etc and so on…
The high-quality species are referred to as achatina folic, achatina achatina and the archachatina marginata however for rearing snail, it is higher and fairly advocated that you get the achatina achatina (also known as large Ghana snail or giant tiger land snail.)
The purpose why it’s far recommended that you rear achatina achatina snail species is because it’s miles big in nature, and maximum in particular, this snail can lay many eggs up to over a thousand each year.
This form of huge duplicate is right snail farming commercial enterprise in Nigeria.
7) Feeding your snail; like I wrote before, rearing snail or snail farming is definitely not expensive which is why it is a great enterprise to undertaking into, feeding your snail is definitely no longer high-priced due to the fact snail feeds on culmination, candy potato, cassava tuber, soya bean, maize chaff, palm kernel cake, fish meal, tomatoes, cocoyam, pawpaw end result, cucumber and leaves, plantains, bananas, cabbage, lettuce leaves and guava culmination.
As you could see, snails are carefree animals that aren’t actually selective of meals. Just make certain that fruit or meals you’re giving them are salt unfastened that is, it has no salt.
8) Snail farming healthful control; simply because we having been saying that snails don’t fall sick as much or that snails are clean to control does no longer mean you need to no longer deal with your snail been sick. There may be a lot of mortality in snail, as it’s far in different animal husbandry too.
You need to consider taking care of your snail. Put in thoughts that it is your enterprise and source of income and don’t just deal with it anyways. Recognize when to offer it meals. feed your snails frequently morning and night time with consuming water and additionally avoid mixing with salt, mixing end result and tuber leaves.
Continually try and regularly easy the feed and water dishes and provide them right water. Also earthworms delivered to the soil assist preserve the pen clean.
Different issues on snail farming; include viable pests and diseases you should search out for possible pest or sickness that could damage your snail.
Parasites, nematodes, trematodes, fungi, and micro arthropods can attack snails, and such issues can spread rapidly when snail populations are intense. Also appearance out for and prevent rats, mice, moles, skunks, weasels, birds, frogs, toads, lizards and strolling insects. These are pests that would damage your snail.
9) Snail farming replica and maturity; male and lady snails fertilize every moment, after mating which might also take several hours, they lay their eggs in depressions below logs or fragments.
Even though they start laying white eggs 8-12 months while they’re sexually mature, snail eggs hatches among four to six weeks.
After hatching, the infant snail stays within the soil for two-5 days. Then the infant should be put in a separate pen to provide it available area to grow. Furthermore, it commonly takes up to at least one½ to two years to develop to adulthood. Properly matured snails need to have a thick, more difficult and if possible large brim/shell.
10) Snail farming in Nigeria; harvesting your snail; while your snails are all matured, harvest them for selling. Do now not promote your snail while it isn’t but mature. It is beneficial no longer to reap the entire snail right now that is its miles vital in order to preserve some for breeding and to serve as base inventory on your snail farm.
11) Advertising your snail; although it is better to do this earlier prior harvesting, sample your snail to right customers who might be fascinated. Market your snail to marketplace women, inns, joints and also restaurants.
However earlier than you try this, do a marketplace studies to recognize the price of snail within the marketplace. This may assist the price to which you’ll be selling yours; so as no longer to promote above the normal price or below the regular rate in other to make your profit in your snail farming business in Nigeria.
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